Lesvos, concerning the evidence that archaeological excavations have bought to light, has been inhabited since at least the Neolithic period. During the Bronze Age it had already developed an exceptionally advanced civilization.
In 1507 B.C. the island was colonized by the Pelasgians. In 1393-1184 it was ruled by the Aecheans and from 1100-1000, by the Aeolians, who intermingled with the old population and gave the island their language and culture. In particular, then an Aeolian colony was established on Lesvos by Kras, of the Penthilids. Lesvos flourished and the people of the island became extremely active on the sea and colonized the coast of Asia Minor which became known as the ???Coast of the Mitilinians?. It was in this area, near the tomb of Achilles, that the inhabitants of Mitilini built the town of Achilleion. In 659 B.C. the Penthilos dynasty came to an end. The inhabits of Lesvos turned to agriculture and shipping and Lesvos was a major naval power for a considerable length of time. Their command of the sea brought them into conflict with the Athenians.