Since the antiquity Lesvos has been known under various other names, as for example: Pelasgia, Issa, Ethiopia and Aegera (swarthy), Mytonis, Imerti (lustful), Lasia (dense) and Makaria. According to indications emanating from mythology and folk culture, the first inhabitants of the island descended from Thessalia and were considered to originate from the Aeolians. Although the prehistoric era of Lesvos has not been fully investigated, we presently know about the existence of twelve prehistoric positions ??? most of which are found in coastal areas with only four of them being in the Mediterranean side. It seems that the Gulf of Kalloni has been the one that was most densely inhabited, while the island???s and its settlements??? peak period coincided with the Bronze Age.
After getting over several internal conflicts and disputes in which Alcaeos the poet had participated, at the end of the 7th century B.C., Mytilene managed to establish a democratic regime and a subsequent political stability thanks to the wise man called Pittakos. Thus, Lesvos developed and gradually acquired great naval power that allowed it to conquer other settlements of the island. The Persian occupation in Lesvos that started in 357 B.C. ends in 332 B.C., when Alexander the Great frees the island. During the Roman years Antissa and Pyrra, two of the five settlements, disappear after losing their power. Once more Mytilene appears to be the location most densely inhabited. Some of the most renowned Romans of the time (Pompey, Agrippa, Germanikos) visit the island providing it with privileges and other goods. Around 52 B.C. Lesvos accepts the lights of Christianity by Apostle Paul